By Kuljeet Singh and Shivani Jasrotia

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, which conducted at the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atoms-the food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies. But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, it’s impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materials were used for centuries. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago. The artists back then just didn’t know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with. Nanotechnology could help meet the need for affordable, clean drinking water through rapid, low-cost detection of impurities in and filtration and purification of water. Nanoparticles will someday be used to clean industrial water pollutants in ground water through chemical reactions that render them harmless, at much lower cost than methods that require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment. Nanotechnology has the real potential to revolutionize a wide array of medical and biotechnology tools and procedures so that they are more personalized, portable, cheaper, safer, and easier to administer. Below are some examples of important advances in these areas. Nanotechnology has been used in the early diagnosis of atherosclerosis, or the build-up of plaque in arteries. Here we discuss only how nanotechnology helps in environmental protection .
Nanotechnology in Environmental Protection
In the last few decades, highly toxic organic compounds have been synthesized and released into the environment in order to be used directly or indirectly over a long period. Among some of these compounds are pesticides, fuels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , and polychlorinated biphenyls . Some combined chemical compounds resist highly against biodegradation via native flora in comparison with organic substances easily degraded through introduction into the environment. Thus, dangerous chemical compounds have been one of the most serious issues in the contemporary world. The management of contaminated soil and ground water is a major environmental concern. The presence of elevated concentrations of a wide range of contaminants in soils, sediments and surface-and ground waters, affects the health of millions of people worldwide .
Current clean up technology is not significantly and economically adequate to solve all of today’s clean up needs. Nanotechnology is one of the most important in science and perceived as one of the key technologies of the present century . Nanotechnology could be a powerful tool in dealing with pollution remediation. Several studies indicate that combining nanoparticles with conventional treatment could increase the efficiency of contaminants removal, such as organic materials. In Zheng’s report (Rickerby and Morrison, 2007), Nano scale iron particles are very effective for the transformation and detoxification of a wide variety of common environmental contaminants, such as chlorinated organic solvents, organochlorine pesticides, and PCBs. Nanoparticles remain reactive towards contaminants in soil and water for extended periods of time and rapid in situ reactions have been observed with TCE reduction up to 99% in a few days after the nanoparticle injection. Many researchers have shown that engineered nanoparticles such as TiO2 and ZnO, carbon nanotube, metallic nanoparticles (e.g., iron, nickel) magnetic nanoparticles and amphiphilic polyurethane nanoparticles could be useful for treatment of contaminated water, soil or air.In today modern world lot of water get waste in industries ,nanotechnology are advantageous In treating wastewater, since they eliminate contaminants and help in the recycling process to obtain purified water which is suitable for drinking. Application of nanotechnology in environmental science is categorized into four parts: remediation, protection, maintenance, and enhancement. Among these four, remediation is known as the most rapid growing category, protection and maintenance make the main part of nanotechnology application in environmental science, while environmental enhancement represents the smallest part of nanotechnology application categories.
Nanoparticles can be utilized in air and water treatment, mesoporous elements for green chemistry, catalytic applications and environmental molecular science. Along with decreasing the size of the particles, they gain new chemical, electronic and physical properties. Advantages include improved adsorption and unique catalytic properties that can accelerate oxidation or reduction reactions with different contaminants for particle that are less than 10 nm . Nanoscale materials have been at a number of contaminated sites with preliminary reports of success. Nanotechnology is also able to improve the environment via presenting influential control and preventing of contamination. For environmental treatment, different implementations of nanotechnology have been successfully implemented at the laboratory scale. However, mostly these applications need confirmation of their effectiveness and safety in the field. Traditional remediation technologies have indicated confined efficacy in reduction of the concentration of contaminations in air, water, and soil. According to Boehm (Dang et al., 2015) nanomaterials can act more remarkably and influentially as filtration media in comparison with bigger particles with the same chemicals .
The authors Kuljeet Singh MSc 4th Sem student and Shivani Jasrotia PhD scholar of Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garwal University (Central university in Srinagar, Uttrakhand) e-mail cont.:-9596667846